Lyailya Rashitovna SABIROVA1 Adel Ilsurovich GALIAMUTDINOV2

ABSTRACT: In a COVID-19 pandemic, where we are now, there is an urgent need to move to a new stage of development and reconstruction of the existing methods of teaching, particularly, the active use of digital technologies. Over the past decades, the number of students using distance technologies has’ been growing quickly. This indicates that this method of formation has received recognition. Certain experiences have been accumulated and positive results have been obtained. An increase in the number of universities providing formation in these technologies signals a global trend towards a transition to non-traditional forms of education. All this is reflected in the system of formation of specialists in higher educational institutions. Global integration processes, affecting all spheres of human activity, pose significant new tasks. Such a task is the formation of professional journalists. This article goes about the new possibilities of online education in the teaching of journalism disciplines. We tried to analyze these technologies and identify the positive aspects of online learning. Also, based in the analysis of questionnaires among students of the Kazan Federal University and with the aim of increasing students' motivation and effectiveness, some recommendations are given on the example of mastering the course “History of Domestic Journalism”.

KEYWORDS: Online education. Journalism. History of domestic journalism. Students. Recommendations.

RESUMO: Em uma pandemia COVID-19, em que estamos agora, há uma necessidade urgente de passar para um novo estágio de desenvolvimento e reconstrução dos métodos existentes de ensino, em particular, o uso ativo das tecnologias digitais. Durante as últimas décadas, o número de estudantes que utilizam tecnologias a distância tem crescido rapidamente. Isto indica que este modo de formação tem recebido reconhecimento. Certas experiências têm sido acumuladas e resultados positivos têm sido obtidos. Um aumento no número de universidades que oferecem formação nestas tecnologias sinaliza uma tendência global para uma transição para formas não tradicionais de educação. Tudo isso se reflete no


1 Kazan Federal University (KPFU), Kazan – Russia. Associate Professor of the Department of National and Global Media, Institute of Social Philosophical Sciences and Mass Communications. Candidate of Philology. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6699-615X. E-mail: lysabirova@yandex.ru


2 Kazan Federal University (KPFU), Kazan – Russia. Associate Professor of the Department of National and Global Media, Institute of Social Philosophical Sciences and Mass Communications. Candidate of Philology, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0389-7581. E-mail: adelazat@mail.ru



sistema de formação de especialistas em instituições de ensino superior. Os processos de integração global, que afetam todas as esferas da atividade humana, representam novas tarefas significativas. Tal tarefa é a formação de jornalistas profissionais. Este artigo fala sobre as novas possibilidades da educação online no ensino de disciplinas jornalísticas. Tentamos analisar estas tecnologias e identificar os aspectos positivos da aprendizagem on- line. Também com base na análise de questionários entre os estudantes da Universidade Federal de Kazan e com o objetivo de aumentar a motivação e a eficácia dos estudantes, são dadas algumas recomendações sobre o exemplo de domínio do curso “História do Jornalismo Doméstico”.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Educação online. Jornalismo. História do jornalismo doméstico. Estudantes. Recomendações.

RESUMEN: En una pandemia de COVID-19, donde nos encontramos ahora, existe una necesidad urgente de pasar a una nueva etapa de desarrollo y reconstrucción de los métodos de enseñanza existentes, en particular, el uso activo de las tecnologías digitales. Durante las últimas décadas, el número de estudiantes que utilizan tecnologías a distancia ha aumentado muy rápidamente. Esto indica que esta forma de formación ha recibido reconocimiento. Se ha acumulado cierta experiencia y se han obtenido resultados positivos. Un aumento en el número de universidades que brindan capacitación en estas tecnologías indica una tendencia mundial hacia una transición a formas de educación no tradicionales. Todo esto se refleja en el sistema de formación de especialistas en las instituciones de educación superior. Los procesos de integración global, que afectan a todos los ámbitos de la actividad humana, plantean nuevas tareas importantes. Tal tarea es la formación de periodistas profesionales. Este artículo habla de las nuevas posibilidades de la educación online en la enseñanza de las disciplinas periodísticas. Intentamos analizar estas tecnologías e identificar los aspectos positivos del aprendizaje en línea. También sobre la base del análisis de cuestionarios entre estudiantes de la Universidad Federal de Kazán y con el objetivo de aumentar la motivación y la eficacia de los estudiantes, se dan algunas recomendaciones sobre el ejemplo de dominar el curso “Historia del periodismo doméstico”.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Educación en línea. Periodismo. Historia del periodismo doméstico. Estudiantes. Recomendaciones.


The world community has entered the era of informatization, communications are rapidly developing and are forcing people to pursue education throughout their lives, and this determines the relevance of the study. These processes are reflected in the system of training specialists in higher educational institutions. Global integration processes affecting all spheres of human activity pose new important tasks. Such a task is the training of professional journalists.

“The history of Russian journalism” is a basic item in the educational program track of


      1. - Journalism. This course contributes to the creative thinking of past experiences, it



        helps perception of moral and ethical priorities of journalism. Despite the importance of the courses on the history of journalism, mastering them, as a rule, presents certain difficulties for students. There is an explanation for this: studying the history of journalism involves, on the one hand, remembering a significant number of dates, names, titles of periodicals, and on the other hand, it requires an understanding of the relationship between phenomena and the logic of events. Therefore, teachers of journalism history always encounter such a problem as making it easier for students to memorize material, than to interest them, to captivate (ZHILYAKOVA, 2012). One of the means of solving this problem can be online learning, which is designed to improve and develop the traditional full-time and correspondence forms.

        Online learning technologies are developing with the improvement of technical means and storage media. The transition to the third millennium was marked by the use of the Internet in learning, so researchers paid special attention to the issues of theory and practice of online learning.


        The authors used such empirical and general scientific methods as observation, comparison, analysis, and interviewing. The study is based on the studies of theorists of the modern media sphere such as Garifullin and Sabirova (2017), Andrianova (2017), Gradushko (2019) and researchers of the theory and practice of online learning Antonova and Vishtak (2010), Bobrova (2009), Shevchuk (2007), Topunova (2012), Abdullaev (2007), Meyer,

        (2011), Gunesh and Ali (2012) and Urtel (2008).

        Results and discussion


        Over the past 15-20 years, the computer and the Internet - technology has become a global information resource and communication tool. It is an essential element of modern life. In today's information society, knowledge quickly lose relevance. For this reason, the process of preparing qualified specialists becomes very dynamic and continuous, so the main task of higher education is not to give the student the greatest possible amount of knowledge, but to teach them to produce and creatively apply their knowledge. This is possible practically only with the use of new information technologies in the educational process, focused on the implementation of constantly changing learning goals. One of the promising forms of new information technologies in education is online learning. Online learning is learning at a



        distance, when the teacher and the learner are separated in space and (or) in time, and the learning process is carried out using network tools.

        The advantage of using the potential of new information technologies is that new information is provided at the request of the student precisely at the moment when they realize its need. We can also say that the level of accessibility in the process of mastering educational material increases due to the fact that the student can be provided with extensive supporting background information and individual information support.

        The principle of consistency and consistency consists in teaching and gaining knowledge in a certain systematic manner. The capabilities of new information technologies allow this principle to be realized with the ability to manage training activities through a consistent supply of systematically organized training material to be studied.

        Some genres of video content with the use of distance learning technologies in teaching the course “History of Domestic Journalism” can optimally solve the tasks of the educational process. It is:

        1. video lecture with accompanying visuals (graphics, text, etc.);

        2. fasts - short videos with expert answers to practical questions;

        3. video cases;

        4. documentary;

        5. interviews with real people.

The purpose of the introductory lecture: to set scientific objectives, justify the relevance of the course and reveal its place among other disciplines. The objectives of the introductory lecture are to convey organizational information to the student, inform about the procedure and deadline for passing control measures at the course, motivate the student, encourage the student to think independently and to search for answers to the questions posed. Estimated length of introductory lecture: up to 7 minutes.

Thematic lectures are lectures intended for a consistent systematic presentation of the contents of the course over a longer time in comparison with other types of lectures. Purpose: to provide facts and their analysis, conclusions. The objective of the thematic lecture is the formation of students' voluminous, integrated understanding of the topic under study.


But it cannot be said that the Internet has become the only and first cause of changes in the structure of education. Looking at historical information about such innovations, we can notice that the emergence and spread in society of radio transmission technology and



radio receivers also brought about changes in the forms of organization of learning. For example, along with the active spread of broadcasting, in 1924 educational courses appeared on the British radio station BBC. Another historical period of the introduction of technology into the educational space was the time of the appearance of television broadcasting. An example of such an introduction is the television of the Soviet period of Russian history. The subjects of the programs were different both in content, and in the level of cognition of information, and in the format of the organization of the program.

Kazan Federal University uses Microsoft Teams, Zoom, Skype, VKontakte, WhatsApp platforms for distance education. For the sake of interest, we conducted a small survey (interview) among students about how they evaluate innovations in the educational system. So, the interviewees noted less time and effort spent on the educational process: “Now I save money on travel, do not get up at 6 in the morning and do not go on a crowded bus to the university, I do not need to look for a place to have lunch [...]” (Interview No. 2), “It has become easier, I get enough sleep, I don’t run [...]” (Interview No. 1). In addition, opinions were expressed that this method of obtaining education is more convenient compared to the traditional version, since the teaching of educational material is carried out using computer technology to transmit and broadcast various types of information: “Now we show presentations in lectures, watch documentaries about publicists of the 19th century, at the university sometimes the audiences simply were not equipped with equipment” (Interview 3). Also, students noted as a positive thing a deeper study of the material with this form of training, compared with the usual form of training: “Only by watching documentaries did I understand some historical points” (Interview 4).

Many said about the advantage of chat communities that communication with classmates takes place at any time, which allows them to solve issues related to the educational process: “We write off, we ask homework, we solve something together, explain incomprehensible”, “Teachers sometimes get in touch with us on social networks even at 1 in the night” (Interview 2).

There are also negative points. Among them, it was indicated that there was no sense of presence at the lecture. This negatively affects the student’s attentiveness, and, as a result, the understanding of the information: “Some classmates simply turn on the lesson and leave or minimize the window” (Interview 1).


Currently, the methods of developing critical thinking are actively being introduced into the educational system, and courses, trainings, and also academic disciplines are being developed for this purpose. It is important to promote the development of critical thinking



among students, since at present it is necessary not only to be able to find the necessary information, but also to analyze it, to compare data obtained from different sources, to evaluate, comprehend and draw adequate conclusions. As part of the development of the course “History of Domestic Journalism”, this goal can also be achieved. For example, there are various interpretations of the same historical event.

Many researchers point to the need to develop critical thinking of students, considering it an educational value “along with reading and writing skills” (MATVEEVA, 2017). The humanities, in particular the subject “History of Domestic Journalism”, has great potential for developing students' critical thinking.

Modern innovative technologies in the field of education open up new opportunities for the application of adequate methods for transmitting information and disseminating knowledge, and forming the necessary competencies on their basis. In recent years, the technical and technological support of the educational process has changed significantly, whole digital zones of development of educational institutions at various levels have arisen:



Uma importante tarefa de integração de um recurso educacional digital (RED) ao processo educacional é a formação de um ambiente educacional eletrônico que permita aos alunos organizarem seu próprio trabalho. Cada aluno tem uma velocidade individual de domínio do material, à qual há acesso ilimitado. Informações na forma de material fotográfico, vídeo e áudio, modelos estáticos e dinâmicos, objetos de realidade virtual e modelagem interativa, um arquivo de texto, ou outros materiais educacionais caracterizados pela visualização, podem ser incluídos em um recurso educacional digital. Como resultado, isso melhora a qualidade do processo educacional (KATHANOVA, 2010).

Sobre o tema “História do Jornalismo Doméstico” na Internet, há cursos de alta qualidade de colegas de outras universidades, por exemplo, cursos da Universidade Estadual de Moscou com o nome de M.V. Lomonosov e da Universidade Estadual de St. Petersburg (há palestras de domínio público de Elena Sonina “História do Jornalismo Russo da segunda metade do século XVIII, início do século XIX” (SONINA, 2020)). Escola Superior de Economia etc. Existem até programas prontos no canal do YouTube sobre “História do Jornalismo”, por exemplo, “A História do Jornalismo desde os tempos antigos até o presente” de Vladimir Nechaev da Companhia de televisão da Universidade Humanitária Moderna. Às vezes, podemos usar esses programas-cursos, apenas para que representantes de várias escolas científicas tenham a oportunidade de olhar para o tema sob diferentes perspectivas. A presença de diferentes fontes nos faz comparar pontos de vista, fazer escolhas, juntar um ou outro e desenvolver os nossos, uma representação visual da cultura da discussão, formas de dialogar para a busca conjunta e tomada de decisões é desenvolvida. Ao mesmo tempo, revela-se o profissionalismo do professor, suas personalidades são reveladas mais brilhantes e profundas.

Na Internet podemos encontrar documentários de alta qualidade sobre publicitários, que podem ser usados para enviar materiais. Por exemplo, o filme sobre o famoso escritor revolucionário russo Alexander Herzen, sua carreira criativa, oposição ao regime, vida no exílio e um destino trágico. E na comunidade VKontakte, é possível encontrar aulas de áudio e livros de áudio úteis, por exemplo, as palestras de K. Alekseev "Jornalismo e choques revolucionários de 1917"3 ou "O nascimento do jornalismo russo de O. Kruglikov. Petrovsky Vedomosti”4.

Para verificar o significado dos termos, pode-se usar ditado histórico. Isso também é possível com o ensino à distância. São ditadas de 5 a 10 palavras (nomes de publicitários,


3 Disponível em: vk.com/topic-69044671_31764545. Acesso em: 10 dez. 2020.


4 Disponível em: vk.com/topic-69044671_31761656. Acesso em: 10 dez. 2020.



iluministas, nomes de jornais, revistas, objetos históricos e geográficos, eventos). O aluno deve anexar rapidamente o arquivo com as respostas ao grupo (por exemplo, enquanto trabalha no Microsoft Teams).


A utilização de recursos educacionais digitais como ferramenta pedagógica para o desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico permite trabalhar da seguinte forma: o professor ouve e orienta o aluno, e o aluno aprende a trabalhar de forma independente, utilizando fontes de informação e capacidades técnicas.

Os recursos educacionais digitais no processo educacional têm seus aspectos positivos. A maior porcentagem de entrevistados - 53% enfatizaram uma qualidade tão positiva como a visibilidade. Portanto, isso prova mais uma vez que, em comparação com o método tradicional de ensino, que carece da prática de utilização de recursos educacionais digitais, as novas tecnologias de ensino são mais populares entre os alunos.


A fim de despertar o interesse dos alunos e tornar o aprendizado efetivo para o domínio do curso “História do Jornalismo Russo”, algumas recomendações devem ser listadas:

  1. Os professores precisam ser mais competentes na busca e seleção de informações. Em primeiro lugar, o material deve ser coletado de diferentes fontes, e não apenas de um livro didático ou recurso da Internet. É preciso lembrar que as informações devem ser relevantes.

  2. Na preparação de material prático utilizando uma tecnologia educacional específica, deve-se lembrar também que as tarefas práticas devem estar relacionadas ao material já explicado. Isso é necessário para esclarecer os vários pontos que foram perdidos durante a aplicação dos conhecimentos teóricos, não ocupando o tempo previsto para a solução de quaisquer problemas, situações.


  3. É importante manter a comunicação intersujeitos. Os professores precisam colaborar, interagir uns com os outros, analisar os materiais transmitidos e eliminar a duplicação de informações.



  4. Os professores são incentivados a mudar suas estratégias de pensamento e passar da natureza conservadora da instrução para o uso e aprimoramento das habilidades e habilidades de métodos não tradicionais e tecnologias digitais.

  5. Os professores são encorajados a ir além do pensamento estereotipado e pensar de forma criativa e livre, conduzir palestras com interesse.

  6. É necessário motivar os alunos para que tenham interesse nas atividades educacionais e profissionais futuras. Para isso, podem ser utilizadas medidas para aumentar a motivação educacional, que são muitas.

  7. Uma abordagem estritamente disciplinada para a aprendizagem deve ser evitada. É preciso lembrar que um estudo abrangente da matéria dá resultados efetivos no desenvolvimento do conhecimento pelos alunos. É importante que o assunto seja abordado por todas as áreas da sociedade para seu melhor entendimento.

AGRADECIMETNOS: O trabalho é realizado de acordo com o Programa de Crescimento Competitivo do Governo Russo da Universidade Federal de Kazan.


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Como referenciar este artigo

SABIROVA, L. R.; GALIAMUTDINOV, A. I. Possibilidades de educação online no ensino da disciplina “História do jornalismo doméstico”. Revista on line de Política e Gestão Educacional, Araraquara, v. 25, n. esp.1, p. 552-562, mar. 2021. e-ISSN:1519-9029. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22633/rpge.v25iesp.1.14995

Submetido em: 06/11/2020 Revisões requeridas em: 18/01/2021 Aprovado em: 23/02/221


Publicado em: 01/03/2021