Experiências parentais sobre os efeitos da pandemia de COVID-19 em crianças com deficiência na Arábia Saudita





COVID-19, Crianças com deficiência, Experiência parental, Pandemia, Percepções


Trata-se de uma análise qualitativa interpretativa que explora as percepções dos pais acerca dos impactos da COVID-19 em crianças com deficiência na Arábia Saudita. Foram conduzidas vinte entrevistas semiestruturadas com os cuidadores dessas crianças e a análise dos dados foi realizada utilizando a abordagem temática. Os resultados revelaram que a pandemia teve impactos significativos tanto nas crianças quanto em seus pais, sendo notórios diversos relatos de casos de depressão e estresse decorrentes dos desafios impostos por essa crise. Os efeitos abarcaram as esferas psicológicas, acadêmicas e sociais. É salientado a relevância de uma utilização eficiente das plataformas de ensino à distância. A cooperação entre diferentes setores é apontada como fundamental para mitigar os efeitos da COVID-19 nas vidas das crianças.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Faris Algahtani, University of Jeddah

Associate Professor, Department of Special Education, College of Education.

Sultan Alzahrani, University of Jeddah

Associate Professor, Department of Special Education, College of Education.


ABAWI, O. et al. COVID‐19 related anxiety in children and adolescents with severe obesity: A mixed‐methods study. Clinical Obesity, v. 10, n. 6, p. e12412, 2020.

ABDELFATTAH, F. et al. Exploring feelings of worry and sources of stress during COVID-19 pandemic among parents of children with disability: A sample from Arab Countries. Education Sciences, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 5, 2021. DOI: 10.3390/educsci11050216. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7102/11/5/216. Accessed in: 25 Jan. 2023.

ABDULLAH, M. Full exclusion during COVID-19: Saudi Deaf education is an example. Heliyon, [S. l.], v. 7, n. 3, e06536, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06536. Available at: https://www.cell.com/heliyon/fulltext/S2405-8440(21)00639-3?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2405844021006393%3Fshowall%3Dtrue#articleInformation. Accessed in: 25 Jan. 2023

ABUHAMMAD, S. Barriers to distance learning during the COVID-19 outbreak: A qualitative review from parents’ perspective. Heliyon, v. 6, n. 11, 2020.

AL AWAJI, N. et al. Quality of Life, Needs and Fears of Mothers of Children with Disabilities in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 Lockdown. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, [S. l.], v. 18, n. 21, p. 11442, 2021. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182111442. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34769958/. Accessed in: 26 Jan. 2023.

ALADWAN, M. S. The effect of the spread of the new COVID-19 on students with learning disabilities according to some variables. Science and Education, [S. l.], v. 2, n. 10, p. 276–290, 2021. Available at: https://openscience.uz/index.php/sciedu/article/view/1903. Accessed in: 26 Jan. 2023.

ALJEDAANI, W. et al. I Cannot See You—The Perspectives of Deaf Students to Online Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic: Saudi Arabia Case Study. Education Sciences, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 11, p. 712, 2021. DOI: 10.3390/educsci11110712. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7102/11/11/712. Accessed in: 26 Jan. 2023.

ALQRAINI, F. M.; ALASIM, K. N. Distance Education for d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Support. Research in Developmental Disabilities, [S. l.], v. 117, p. 104059, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2021.104059. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34388577/. Accessed in: 25 Jan. 2023.

AVERETT, K. H. Remote Learning, COVID-19, and Children With Disabilities. AERA Open, [S. l.], v. 7, 2021. DOI: 10.1177/23328584211058471. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/23328584211058471. Accessed in: 12 July 2022.

AWAN, M.T. et al. COVID-19 pandemic, outbreak educational sector and students online learning in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, [S. l.], v. 23, n. 3, p. 23, 2020. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341714040_Covid-19_pandemic_outbreak_educational_sector_and_students_online_learning_in_Saudi_Arabia. Accessed in: 25 Jan. 2023.

AZZAM, N. A. et al. Disability and quality of life before and during the COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional study in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, [S. l.], v. 26, n. 5, p. 256, 2020. DOI: 10.4103/sjg.SJG_175_20. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739992/. Accessed in: 12 July 2022.

BAILEY, S. Including students with disabilities in theater education. In: Handbook of Arts Education and Special Education: Policy, Research, and Practices. 1. ed. New York: Routledge: 2017. p. 184–195. DOI: 10.4324/9781315618135. Available at: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/edit/10.4324/9781315618135/handbook-arts-education-special-education-jean-crockett-sharon-malley. Accessed in: 12 July 2022.

BERASATEGI SANCHO, N. et al. The well-being of children with special needs during the COVID-19 lockdown: Academic, emotional, social and physical aspects. European Journal of Special Needs Education, [S. l.], v. 127, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106085. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019074092100164X. Accessed in: 12 July 2022.

BUSAAD, Y.; ALNAIM, M. Parents’ perceptions regarding the effects of COVID-19 on their children with and without disabilities. International Journal of Instruction, [S. l.], v. 14, n. 4, p. 997–1012, 2021. DOI: 10.29333/iji.2021.14457a. Available at: https://www.e-iji.net/dosyalar/iji_2021_4_57.pdf. Accessed in: 26 Jan. 2023.

COLOMBO, R. A.; WALLACE, M.; TAYLOR, R. An essential service decision model for ABA providers during crisis. Behavior Analysis in Practice, [S. l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 306-311, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s40617-020-00432-z. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243734/#:~:text=The%20model%20begins%20by%20asking,if%20warranted%20by%20the%20crisis). Accessed in: 12 July 2022.

COX, D. J.; PLAVNICK, J. B.; BRODHEAD, M. T. A proposed process for risk mitigation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavior Analysis in Practice, [S. l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 299-305, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s40617-020-00430-1. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32328220/. Accessed in: 12 July 2022.

CUSINATO, M. et al. Stress, resilience, and well-being in Italian children and their parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public health, v. 17, n. 22, p. 8297, 2020.

DONG, C.; CAO, S.; LI, H. Young children’s online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: Chinese parents’ beliefs and attitudes. Children and youth services review, v. 118, p. 105440, 2020.

DURSUN, O. B. et al. Caring for the most vulnerable: a model for managing maladaptive behavior in children with mental special needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telemedicine and e-Health, [ S. L.], v. 27, n. 9, 2020. DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2020.0380. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33232640/. Accessed in: 12 July 2022.

FAO. Arab Food Security: Vulnerabilities and Pathways. United Nation Beirut, 2021.

GARBE, A. et al. COVID-19 and remote learning: Experiences of parents with children during the pandemic. American Journal of Qualitative Research, v. 4, n. 3, p. 45-65, 2020.

GUNDERSEN, C. et al. Childhood food insecurity in the US: Trends, causes, and policy options. The Future of Children, v. 24, p. 1-19, 2014.

GUTIÉRREZ-ORTIZ, C. et al. Miller Fisher syndrome and polyneuritis cranialis in COVID-19. Neurology, v. 95, n. 5, p. e601-e605, 2020.

HALSTEAD, E. J.; SULLIVAN, E. C.; DIMITRIOU, D. The impact of COVID-19 on sleep in autistic adults: longitudinal comparisons pre and during Lockdown. Frontiers in psychiatry, v. 12, p. 708339, 2021.

HEATH, P. T. et al. Safety and efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine, v. 385, n. 13, p. 1172-1183, 2021.

HUBERMAN, M.; MILES, M. B. The qualitative researcher's companion. [S. l.]: Sage, 2002.

IMRAN, N.; ZESHAN, M.; PERVAIZ, Z. Mental health considerations for children & adolescents in COVID-19 Pandemic. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, [ S. l.], v. 36, n. COVID19-S4, p. S67, 2020. DOI: 10.12669/pjms.36. COVID19-S4.2759. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306970/. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.

IMRAN, N.; ZESHAN, M.; PERVAIZ, Z. Mental health considerations for children & adolescents in COVID-19 Pandemic. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, v. 36, p. S67, 2020.

JIAO, W. Y. et al. Behavioral and emotional disorders in children during the COVID-19 epidemic. The Journal of Pediatrics, v. 221, p. 264-266, 2020.

KARVOUNIDES, D. et al. The intersection of COVID‐19, school, and headaches: Problems and solutions. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, [ S. L.], v. 61, n. 1, p. 190-201, 2021. DOI: 10.1111/head.14038. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33382459/. Accessed in: 15 Nov. 2022.

KIM, J.; LEE, J. C. Effects of COVID-19 on preferences for private dining facilities in restaurants. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, v. 45, p. 67-70, 2020.

KUMALASARI, D.; KURNIAWATI, F. The Effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training (BST) Program to Improve Personal Safety Skills for Down syndrome Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability. Psychological Research on Urban Society, [ S. l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 81, 2018. DOI: 10.7454/proust.v1i2.28. Available at: https://scholar.ui.ac.id/en/publications/the-effectiveness-of-behavioral-skills-training-bst-program-to-im. Accessed in: 15 Nov. 2022.

LEBLANC, L. A. et al. The role of compassion and ethics in decision making regarding access to applied behavior analysis services during the COVID-19 crisis: A response to Cox, Plavnick, and Brodhead. Behavior Analysis in Practice, [ S. l.], v. 13, n. 3, p. 604-608, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s40617-020-00446-7. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296895/. Accessed in:18 Nov. 2022.

MADHESH, A. Full exclusion during COVID-19: Saudi Deaf education is an example. Heliyon, [ S. l.], v. 7, n. 3, e06536, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06536. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844021006393. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.

MARGARITIS, I. et al. How to deal with COVID-19 epidemic-related lockdown physical inactivity and sedentary increase in youth? Adaptation of Anses’ benchmarks. Archives of Public Health, v. 78, p. 1-6, 2020.

MBAZZI, F. B. et al. The impact of COVID-19 measures on children with disabilities and their families in Uganda. Disability & Society, [ S. l.], v. 37, n. 7, p. 1-24, 2020. DOI: 10.1080/09687599.2020.1867075. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09687599.2020.1867075. Accessed in:18 Nov. 2022.

MEADAN, H.; DACZEWITZ, M. E. Internet-based intervention training for parents of young children with disabilities: A promising service-delivery model. Early Child Development and Care, v. 185, n. 1, p. 155-169, 2015.

MOHAMMED ALI, A. E-learning for Students With Disabilities During COVID-19: Faculty Attitude and Perception. SAGE Open, [ S. l.], v. 11, n. 4, 2021. DOI: 10.1177/21582440211054494. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/21582440211054494. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.

MOORE, J. T. et al. Disparities in incidence of COVID-19 among underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in counties identified as hotspots during June 5–18, 2020—22 states, February–June 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 69, n. 33, p. 1122, 2020.

MORGÜL, E.; KALLITSOGLU, A.; ESSAU, C. A. Psychological effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on children and families in the UK. Revista de Psicologia Clinica Con Ninos y Adolescentes, [ S. l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 42-48, 2020. DOI: 10.21134/rpcna.2020.mon.2049. Available at: https://www.revistapcna.com/sites/default/files/008_0.pdf. Accessed in: 15 Nov. 2022.

MOSQUERA, M. L. et al. Autistic adults’ personal experiences of navigating a social world prior to and during Covid-19 lockdown in Spain. Research in Developmental Disabilities, v. 117, p. 104057, 2021.

MURPHY, N. A.; CARBONE, P. S. Promoting the participation of children with disabilities in sports, recreation, and physical activities. Pediatrics, [ S. l.], v. 121, n. 5, p. 1057-1061, 2008. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-0566. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18450913/. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.

MUTLUER, T. et al. Behavioral implications of the Covid-19 process for autism spectrum disorder, and individuals' comprehension of and reactions to the pandemic conditions. Frontiers in Psychiatry, v. 11, p. 561882, 2020.

PEARCE, L. R. Helping Children with Emotional Difficulties: A Response to Intervention Investigation. The Rural Educator, [ S. l.], v. 30, n. 2, p. 34-46, 2018. DOI: 10.35608/ruraled.v30i2.452. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ869307.pdf. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.

PELLICANO, E.; STEARS, M. The hidden inequalities of COVID-19. Autism, v. 24, n. 6, p. 1309-1310, 2020.

PIETROBELLI, A. et al. Effects of COVID‐19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors in children with obesity living in Verona, Italy: a longitudinal study. Obesity, v. 28, n. 8, p. 1382-1385, 2020.

RASMITADILA, R. et al. The perceptions of primary school teachers of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, v. 7, n. 2, p. 90-109, 2020.

SHARMA, N.; EL-SOFANY, H. F.; EL-SEOUD, S. A. Supporting effective education for special needs children in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19 pandemic. In: IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). Vienna, Austria, p. 1386-1392, 2021.

SINGH, S. et al. Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health of children and adolescents: A narrative review with recommendations. Psychiatry Research, [ S. l.], v. 293, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113429. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444649/. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.

SMITH, S. et al. Parental role and support for online learning of students with disabilities: A paradigm shift. Journal of Special Education Leadership, [ S. l.], v. 29, n. 2, p. 101-112, 2016. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1118423.pdf. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.

SØRENSEN, K. et al. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health, v. 12, n. 1, p. 1-13, 2012.

SPINELLI, M. et al. Parents’ Stress and Children’s Psychological Problems in Families Facing the COVID-19 Outbreak in Italy. Frontiers in Psychology, [ S. l.], v. 11, p. 1-7, 2020. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01713. Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01713/full. Accessed in:18 Nov. 2022.

TOQUERO, C. M. D. Inclusion of people with disabilities amid COVID-19: Laws, interventions, recommendations. Hipatia Press, [ S. l.], v. 10, n. 2, p. 158-177, 2020. DOI: 10.17583/remie.2020.5877. Available at: https://www.proquest.com/docview/2452491353. Accessed in:18 Nov. 2022.

UNICEF. Psychosocial Support for Children during COVID-19: A manual for parents and caregivers. UNICEF, Child Line India Foundation, 2020.

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER. COVID-19 and the Rights of Persons With Disabilities: Guidance. Human Rights at the Heart of Response, p. 01-11, 2020.

VANDERLOO, L. M. et al. Applying harm reduction principles to address screen time in young children amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, v. 41, n. 5, p. 335-336, 2020.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. Brazilian Journal of Implantology and Health Sciences, v. 2, n. 3, 2020.

XIE, X. et al. Mental health status among children in home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in Hubei Province, China. JAMA Pediatrics, v. 174, n. 9, p. 898-900, 2020.

YANOW, D. Qualitative-interpretive methods in policy research. In: Handbook of public policy analysis. [ S. l.]: Routledge, 2017. p. 431-442.

ZENIC, N. et al. Levels and changes of physical activity in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: contextualizing urban vs. rural living environment. Applied Sciences, v. 10, n. 11, p. 3997, 2020.

ZHANG, H. et al. How Does COVID-19 impact Students with Disabilities/Health Concerns?. Human-Computer Interaction, [ S. l.], v. 1, p. 1-15, 2020. DOI: 10.48550/arXiv.2005.05438. Available at: https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.05438. Accessed in: 18 Nov. 2022.



Como Citar

ALGAHTANI, F.; ALZAHRANI, S. Experiências parentais sobre os efeitos da pandemia de COVID-19 em crianças com deficiência na Arábia Saudita. Revista on line de Política e Gestão Educacional, Araraquara, v. 27, n. 00, p. e023031, 2023. DOI: 10.22633/rpge.v27i00.18340. Disponível em: https://periodicos.fclar.unesp.br/rpge/article/view/18340. Acesso em: 23 maio. 2024.



Relatos de Pesquisa